and culture - Notes
This essay is based on the Maulana Azad Lecture the author delivered in Delhi, December 2004.
1. There was a Hindu movement outwards to the archipelago which we now identify with Malaysia and Indonesia. But its geographic limits were reached early on at the borders of Cambodia/Vietnam, where the Sinic order took over.
2. I am aware that there are many caveats to add to this simple account of industrial capitalism’s origins. For my current purposes, however, the simple story is sufficient.
3. For a general account of the nature of these changes see Meghnad Desai, Marx’s Revenge.
4. For a cogent discussion of identity, see Chapter 1 of the Human Development Report 2004, signed by Amartya Sen
5. Frequently, ‘natives’ are just those who arrived earlier, but who have made the effort to get integrated in their new culture.
6. ‘Too Diverse? Is Britain Becoming too Diverse to Sustain the Mutual Obligations Behind a Good Society and the Welfare State?’ Prospect, February 2004.
7. Samuel P. Huntington, Who Are We?
1. Carlos Cipolla, Guns and Sails and Empires, Pantheon, New York, 1966
2. Meghnad Desai, Marx’s Revenge: The Resurgence of Capitalism and the Death of Statist Socialism, Verso, London, 2002.
3. Meghnad Desai, Development and Nationhood, OUP, Delhi, 2004
4. David Goodhart, ‘Too Diverse?’, Prospect, February 2004
5. Albert Hourani, A History of the Arab Peoples, Faber and Faber, London, 1991
6. Samuel P. Huntington, Who Are We? The Challenges to America’s National Identity, Simon and Schuster, New York, 2004.
7. Amartya Sen, Cultural Liberty and Human Development in Today’s Diverse World (UNDP Human Development Report, OUP, New York, 2004)
8. Andre Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Vol. 1 — Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries, E.J. Brill, Leiden, 1990
9. Al-Hind: Vol. 2 — The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest 11th-13th Centuries, E.J. Brill, Leiden, 1997
10. Al-Hind: Vol. 3 — Indo-Islamic Societies 14th-15th centuries, E.J. Brill, Leiden, 2004
Lord Meghnad Desai is a Labour Party legislator of Britain’s House of Lords and a former professor at the
London School of Economics. He lives in London